Andrej Hlinka(1864.-1938. ) Roman Catholic priest and politician He was the founder of Hlinka´s Slovak People Party (HSLS ), which had been fulfilling the same function as the German Hitler ´s Nazi Party during the clerofascist regime of Slovakia This party took over the ideology and methods from National Socialist Party of Hitler and it openly adopted their policy at the Conference of Piešťany in September 1936. (- 6. )
Assertions that all this happened without Hlinka´s involvement are distortions of real facts, because it took place not only during his active chairmanship ( 7. ), but it happened on his direct instructions. This can be proved by the minutes of the that-time Slovak Parliament of May 1942, when the deputy for this party Šalat declared that friendly relations with Henlein´s German National Socialist party were established under the chairmanship of A. Hlinka, who had entrusted with this task his acting deputy chairman Dr J. Tiso ( 8. )
Such kind of politics had been adopted thus on the ground of Hlinka´s personal instructions. A. Hlinka did not hide his feelings, as it can be shown by his article written in the newspaper "Slovák ", on October 10, 1932, which reads: I am more impressed with the German "kreizler " ( it meant probably swastika ) and Hitler, than with our regionalists." Against calling A. Hlinka " father of the nation" stands the fact that in his articles he openly attacked " Protestants", which was reflected among others also in the policy of the forthcoming clerofascist regime ( 9. ) Just to mention one of the slogans at that time: "First to go are the Czech bosses, to be followed by Yews and Protestants" . The Hlinka´s intolerant thesis was that Protestants were not Slovaks, and he acknowledged Slovakia only as Catholic country. (Šmihula : Nové slovo , Oct. 1994.)
Therefore the current laudatory attitudes towards Hlinka are not only religious discrimination of those who do not profess Catholic faith, but it is also a purposeful celebration of a symbol of clerofascist era, which Hlinka represented without any doubt. Accordingly to the pattern of Nazi "Hitler Jugend" , in war- time Slovakia "Hlinka Youth" was organised with all attributes of hatred against everything progressive ".Hlinka Guard" bore the name of A. Hlinka , as well as their emergency troops called POHG and they excelled and made this name famous" by their mass murders of patriots in Kremnička, Nemecká, Klak and other places. ( 10.)
It is worth noting that at that time , neither after 1945., . none of HSS members spoke up telling that Hlinka was not a fascist and that fascist organisations were erroneously called after him . Quite conversely even at that time they celebrated him as the father of fascism in Slovakia. ( 11 )
Objections against glorifying Hlinka are just restrained because of fear. of the social pressures and current political atmosphere in Slovakia. Despite all this there have been in press some protests against State Award - the "Order of Hlinka" ( 12 and 9.). Namely legalising this Order puts Slovakia in a position of adherents to HSS ideology ( thus to fascist ideology )
Hlinka is presented these days in Slovakia as " FATHER OF NATION ", concealing at the same time his involvement in the fascist transformation of his party HSS and his instigation against Slovak Lutherans . Now lots of streets were called after him, new museums have been opened , new statues are erected. The one thousand KS banknote bears his picture and the State Award Order of Andrej Hlinka was codified.
Dr Jozef Tiso(1887.- 1947. ) Roman Catholic priest and former president of clerofascist war-time Slovak state - trusted ally of Hitler till the end -
After creation of the first Czechoslovak republic Tiso was on the voting list of the Hungarian national council in the town of Nitra and he was elected. When the Czechoslovak liberation army was near Nitra he exchanged his Hungarian coat for a Slovak one and became on December 1918 member of a committee of five, who went to meet and negotiate with the commander of the Czechoslovak battalion in Rišnovce. ( 13 ) During the first Czechoslovak republic he was also minister of public health in the cabinet in 1927- 1929 . When Hlinka died Tiso became chairman of HSS His fascist political career was heralded when he made a deal on co-operation with Henlein ´s party, which was Hitler ´s extended hand in Czechoslovakia. It happened after the party conference in Piešťany on Hlinka´s injunctions. ( 7and 8. )
In film shots screened by Slovak television STV2 on October 11, 1997. in program called "Attempt of a portrait " one could see that Tiso already greeted by fascist greeting gesture before March 14, 1939 (date of declaring Slovak -Hitler -satellite state.- comment of translator.) (14. ) His racist anti-Semitic views are evident from his speeches e. g. the speech pronounced in Holíč , where he declared: "... to persecute the Jewish scoundrels is the utmost Christian duty of every Slovak Christian- Catholic." ( 15, 16. ) He signed with exaggerated and speedy eagerness the Jewish Codex as soon as on September 10, 1941 which was harsher than the German Nuremberg code. He did not mind the repeated objections of the Holy See handed over by Vatican diplomat Msg Bursio. ( 17. ) Hitler told in his monologues ( page 269 ) : ...We have to exterminate the Jews ... it is interesting how that Catholic little clergyman Tiso sends us the Jews... .( 18. ) By his activities during his presidency he had achieved that he was put on the list of war criminals of allies fighting against Hitler. These after his defection to Austria and after finding his hiding place, had to extradite him to Czechoslovak authorities in accordance with Saint Jacob declaration and with Charter of International Nuremberg Tribunal ( Basic document of Nuremberg process.) Even after his defection Tiso stressed in his speech delivered in Kremsmunster on April 4,1945 that everything he did was correct, if he were in the same situation , he would not act differently. ( 19. )
Some of his defenders point out that during his reign as " Leader of Nation" nobody was sentence to death, but they fail to say that more than 90thousand men, women, and children were murdered without being sentenced in actions for which he was responsible ( including civil population murdered at mass executions, whose corpses were found in 211 mass graves in Slovakia ) ( 41. )
He was put on trial , found guilty of several crimes of treason against the country and against the domestic resistance movement and executed. ( 20. )
About some features of the clerofascist regime and losses on human lives he was responsible for, see following parts..
Pressures on his rehabilitation and acknowledgement as a national hero , martyr, or even for his benediction by Vatican are closely linked with propagation of fascism, which was symbolised by Tiso. Behind these trends are in addition to some citizens mislead by false propaganda above all the compromised "ludák" (=clerofascist) refugees from abroad and their brood , some circles of Catholic clergy and some political representatives, including persons in high positions , the Matica slovenská. (=MS ) ( National Cultural Association sponsored by State.-) and specially established domestic and foreign societies grounded solely for glorifying him ( in this country = " Society of President J. Tiso´s Friends")
"Small fry" Praising other exponents of the fascist regime-
Dr Jozef Kirschbaum
As soon as in his young student age he was known as organiser of inroads into the Jewish part of the city Bratislava , where they plundered everything what they could reach. He extolled Béla Tuka ( sentenced later and executed for his fascist collaboration ) as a man who deserved the first place in the free and independent Slovakia .
After graduating he accosted as a trusted companion Ďurčanský ( who was after World War II put on the list of war criminals of the UN - category A, and sentenced in absentia to capital punishment ) Kirschbaum was the founder and commander of the Academic Guard ( fascist organisation of university students- comment of translator) His frequent duty travels in fascist Berlin together with Ďurčanský followed the aim of strengthening as much as possible collaboration with Nazis. (CIA identified him later in Canada as a prominent Nazi collaborator. -( 21.)
After establishing the satellite Slovak state created by Hitler´s mercy he became secretary general of the single totalitarian political party, the HSS, later he served as chargé d´affaires in Switzerland. He transferred from Slovakia in September 1944 5. million Sk , in October 1944 he received from Bratislava 118870 Swiss franks (Vlastislav Kropka) He had never more financial problems in his career, finally he settled down in Canada, because in USA he was rejected as a Nazi collaborator. There he was involved in activities of Slovak World Congress and other organisations aiming at restoring clerofascist State in Slovakia ( e.g. : Slovak Liberation Council ) ( 22. ) In USA he is until now "persona non grata" for his fascist collaboration which means that he is prohibited entering the country. ( 23.) According to book by J.E. MacKenzie entitled " War Criminals in Canada" Kirschbaum remained thus to be considered in USA collaborator with Nazi Germany while in Slovakia they try to make of him a national hero.
The Kirschbaum affair in Canada culminated in 1988, when the newspaper Whig-Standard publish about him and his fascist past a report of 48 pages entitled :"The Kirschbaum File" ( 68.) In his native town Dolné Vestenice - for this prominent ludak collaborator a memorial tablet was unveiled , and he became honorary member of Matica slovenská , which gave him free hand to spread materials glorifying the Slovak war-time fascism at special conferences with his personal participation ( Bratislava 5.-6. of June , 1995.) Not only in USA is Kirschbaum a persona non grata, but he was also in the Czechoslovak republic sentenced after World War II in accordance with the retribution law, which is kept in secrecy and does not matter at his visits to Slovakia.. Kirschbaum´s eager domestic friends managed to arrange that the Court of justice in Bratislava applied in his case amnesty proclaimed by Antonín Novotný on May 9, 1960 ( 75. )
The materials of proceedings of the seminar of 5.-6. of June, 1995 which want to whitewash the fascist regime and collaboration with Hitler were published by the „House of Slovaks living abroad" in Bratislava ( director : Vladimír Repka. ) ( 18. )
Dr Štefan Polakovič
According Alexander Hirner - Polakovič was during the war- time Slovakia propagator of Hitler s pest in the Matica slovenská, which was misused by him for campaign extolling national socialism
After the start of SNU he took over the post of deputy chief of the State Institute of Propaganda , where he launched a campaign against the SNU and declared fidelity to the Great Leader of Nazi Empire. One can range him among the most prominent ideologists of the clerofascist variety of Nazi regime in Slovakia. Because of his involvement in collaborating during the clerofascist regime he emigrated in 1945 to Argentina.
These days the MS gives him free hand to propagate the fascist Tiso regime ( Conference of MS June 1995. ) in such absurd distortions of the historical truth, that his former pattern and teacher Goebels would not be ashamed for him. ( 24, 25.) On November 17. (anniversary of velvet revolution" comment of translator.) the MS materialised a special seminar about the work of Š Polakovič, one of the founding fathers of Slovak national socialism. ( 28.)
Alojz Macek(1909- 1975.)
Leading organiser of the Slovak clerofascist youth organisation, MP in Slovak parliament of 1939- 1945, escaped and was involved in activities of collaborators in exile. While acting at home, he was for seven years chief of the fascist Hlinka Youth Organisation . ( Slovak variety of Hitler Jugend ). , commander in chief of Slovak work service, he was .personally awarded by Hitler with the " Crest of German Eagle of the First degree". He participated at the creation of special units and of the emergency troops of Hlinka Guards in the period of SNU which became notorious by their mass murders committed on civil population after the suppression of the SNU. In 1994 on his native house a memorial tablet was unveiled under the sponsorship of Matica slovenská (M.S.), in the calendar of M .S. he is depicted as the chief of Hlinka Youth Organisation, who had done invaluable services, and who left his trace in the history of Slovakia
( 26, 27. )
Lieutenant- colonel Ján Šmigovský.
He refused to obey his superior Golian to join with his unit the SNU and he actively prevented his subordinate troops to do so. For his merits he was nominated by the fascist Slovak state chief of a battalion of paramilitary unit " Domobrana", where he awarded among others also captain Havránek who personally executed two soldiers of SNU, who s urrendered. ( 93. ) He was sentenced for treason on SNU to capital punishment. . His preceding account was not quite clean as he was before sentenced for embezzling . (suspended sentence on 8 month's probation ) In the national calendar 1996 of MS " historian" Ján Bobák has written about him a celebrating ode ( nothing special , if we take in consideration the complex of activities of the M.S. done for the sake of celebrating and whitewashing clerofascism )
Other activities of Matica slovenská concerning transporting remains of deceased fascist emigrants and place them in the National Cemetery see later.
OTHER STRANGE ISSUES IN SLOVAK “DEMOCRACY” AND PRESS
Slovakia is in Europe the only country in which the day of victory over fascism is not a state holiday, but just a commemoration day. The newspaper " Slovenský národ" ( ="Slovak nation" ) published some militant poems of V Beniak , originating from the time of clerofascist era, among others that one entitled " We are the guard of fathe r Hlinka" and appended was an enclosure: "President Tiso- the conscience of the nation " ( 64. )
The bulletin of " Party of Slovak people." Slovenské správy (= Slovak news) published articles openly propagating fascism. Just some examples: "The truth about the so called Slovak National Uprising ", -" D r V . Tuka - patriot - martyr " etc. ( 65. , 66 ), sometimes reprinting articles from bulletin of collaborators - emigrated in Canada called " Slovenský kurier (= Slovak courier ) which deserves special information (see later )
No wande0r that the chief of a political party Stanislav Pánis on 14. of March 1998 at the " celebrations" proclaimed about skinheads that they were the " hope of this nation" (62.) Special achievements are presented by the Canadian " Slovenský Kurier " which bears on its title page the slogan of the former fascist Slovak state : " Faithful to God- faithful to the Nation" Its main target are exclusively two items :adoration of Slovak clerofascist State ( which must be inevitably renewed ) and its main representatives ( who must be rehabilitated ) As the most important aid to achieve this tasks is the Holy Virgin Mary . ( that is the best way how to impress the feelings of believers. )
This bulletin is sent to Slovakia , where the adherents make copies of it without permission and distribute them. ( 67.) " The Voice of Slovakia " (editor: Šavel ) glorifies also Adolf Hitler as a combatant for the European civilisation . Vojtech Tuka is celebrated as a Slovak patriot -as well as the chief of POHG murderers , Otoman Kubala . It published also the well known falsification of " The Protocols of Zion " ( 24. ) Arguments proving the fascist character of the war -time Slovak State- recapitulation.
The persevering propagation of Neofascism depicts the war -time clerofascist Slovak State as an island of peace and welfare in the mid of warring Europe , and its " Leader" Tiso as "Jew- loving -man", who was rescuing Jews persecuted by Hitler (29)
G. Hoffmann (who had converted from Jewish to Catholic faith ) in his press release describes Tiso as a benefactor of Jews and the whole Catholic clergy as defenders of persecuted Jews ( polemic see I. Kamenec ref. No 40.) Factual proves against it are: undeniable totalitarian dictatorship of a single permitted "State- Party" - the HSS, with simultaneous abolition of all other political parties . Political terror of pattern taken over from Hitler Third Empire, in which Tiso was by the parliament dubbed "Leader of Nation". This terror was secured by posting on all important position of state administration only people "faithful to nation "(= to clerofascist system). The Hlinka Guard (HG) was established according to pattern of Hitler's AS troops, mainly recruited from members of former "Rodobrana" ( illegal paramilitary organisation) (30 ). Its main purpose was to suppress dissidents and political opponents, later the "Emergency Troops" (POHG) were recruited from their ranks, which actively participated in mass murders of innocent victims, after the SNU. A specific feature of that regime was the coalescence of fascist civic power with the Catholic clergy . Goebels called this regime : " Fascism of the Good Lord God "(Libre penseur 23: 94, p 1-4. -1997 ). The Catholic hierarchy called it in its pastoral letter : "a precious present of God ...incorporation of an ideal shape of human society... (31).The Catholic clergy expressed openly its " merits" in fascist transformation of Slovakia in the following way :...Catholic priests were the spirit of local organisations of HSS.. They were first to fight the Jewish Marxism.. .with highest feelings of pleasure they had welcomed the Slovak State....in the new State they are the first to work in HSS.... ( excerpted from 19. points , published by Catholic press agency of that time -( 32.)
Further evidence of a profound infiltration of the whole administrative system of the fascist State by clergy are the following data. :The president of State and at the same time head of the totalitarian almighty political party was Catholic priest J. Tiso. Out of 63 members of parliament 16 were Catholic priests. Deputy chairman of the State Council was Catholic bishop. Out of the 6 chairmen of county party organisation of HSS two were Catholic priests, out of 60 chairmen of regional party organisations were 13 Catholic priests. ( 33.) It was quite justified and deserved when one had called this State : "Priest -ridden republic"
Dr J . Tiso was in accordance with the set example of Hitle r dubbed " Leader of Nation" and was chairman of party identified with State, which was the only one taking decisions on all provisions which were materialised by State authorities. According the example set by Hitler's Third Empire " Propaganda Institute" was established ( see Dr Polakovič ), similarly like an analogy to GESTAPO, the Centre for State Security (UŠB) was created. This had imprisoned without any hearing or chance of defence opponents to regime in police prisons and concentration camp of Ilava ( total about 3000, many of them tortured, killed , or driven to commit suicide.) One of first prisoners in Ilava was also Dr Ján Paulinyi- Tóth, chairman of Slovak national party, which was by fascists prohibited and abolished. ( 24. )
Contrary to the will of nation the whole economic potential of country , including natural resources, industry and armament was mobilised for the war against allied forces , in addition to it human resources by sending man power to Germany followed suit. Slovak armed forces were sent to fight abroad (In fight against allied forces 50689 soldiers were engaged. ) The Slovak fascist State declared War to England and USA on December 12, 1941. The Slovak National Uprising (SNU) , which could not be possible without support on the part of the majority of civil population proved , that all this collaboration was against the will of the Slovak nation. Unequivocal evidence that Tiso´s regime was of fascist nature is also the Jewish Codex issued on September 9, 1941. Consequently about 5 8 thousand of Jews, 2,300 Roma, and several thousands of Slovaks were moved to extermination concentration camps, only a couple of hundreds returned of these after liberation ..( 35.)
Such a collaboration went on despite the well known and evident fact , that accordingly to " Generalplan Ost ", the Nazis had an intention to erase from Europe all Slav nations including Slovaks.( 24, 34.) The neofascists want to depict the SNU- as a "Coup against legitimate State" .In reality it was a resolute rejection of fascist ways of steering the nation . The German who were called to suppress it together with Slovak helpers of POHG, the unit called "Jozef", and others ( 36. ) slaughtered the civil population including innocent babies after taking control of inhabited regions when SNU. was partially suppressed In the fight against fascism in the second World War 127 thousand of Slovaks participated. The fascist left behind them in Slovakia 211 mass graves of slaughtered Slovaks , and they burned down 90 towns and villages. ( 37, 38.) ( In former Czechoslovak republic total of 360 thousand human victims, 211 mass graves- ( 39.)
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